cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia treatment 2022


cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia treatment

cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia treatment

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a set of diseases caused by an immune system defect in which autoantibodies assault red blood cells as if they were alien entities to the body.

Some people have no symptoms, while others experience weariness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion.

An enlarged spleen can cause jaundice or stomach pain, as well as a sense of fullness.

Anemia is detected and the source of the autoimmune reaction is determined using blood testing.

The immune system is suppressed with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medicines, and the spleen is occasionally removed (surgical removal of the spleen).

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a set of rare illnesses that can strike at any age, but women are more likely to be affected than males. It can also be caused by or be linked to another condition, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or lymphoma, or, in rare circumstances, after taking certain antibiotics, such as penicillin.

Erythrocyte destruction can happen quickly or gradually. The damage may halt after a period of time in some people, but it may continue and become chronic in others. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is divided into two types:

At temperatures similar to body temperature, autoantibodies attach to and kill red blood cells in GH.

The autoantibodies in cold antibody hemolytic anemia reach their greatest activity and assault red blood cells only at temperatures below body temperature.

Cold antibody hemolytic anemia (Donath-Landsteiner syndrome) is an uncommon kind of paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. For example, when a person drinks cold water or washes his hands with it. At low temperatures, the antibody attaches to red blood cells, causing them to be destroyed within the arteries and veins following heating. And most of this happens after a viral infection or in otherwise healthy persons, however it does happen in some syphilis patients ( syphilis). The intensity and speed with which anemia develops vary.

What are the symptoms of hemolytic anemia?

Some people with autoimmune hemolytic anemia have no symptoms, especially if the erythrocyte destruction is mild and gradual, while others have symptoms that are similar to those of other types of anemia (such as fatigue, weakness, and pallor), especially if the erythrocyte destruction is more severe. tighter or quicker

Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), fever, chest discomfort, fainting, heart failure, and even death are all symptoms of severe or fast red blood cell loss. The spleen may expand after a few months or longer of damage, causing a sense of fullness in the belly and occasionally distress.

The hands and feet of persons with cold antibody hemolytic anemia may be cool or blue.

Symptoms of the underlying condition, such as swollen, sensitive lymph nodes and fever, may predominate when autoimmune hemolytic anemia is caused by another disorder.

Severe back and leg pain, headaches, vomiting, and diarrhea are all symptoms of paroxysmal hemoglobinuria. It's possible that the urine is black in color.

What is the medical diagnosis of hemolytic anemia?

When a person's blood tests reveal that they have anemia, physicians investigate the reason. When a blood test reveals a rise in the amount of immature red cells (reticulocytes) or indications of blood damage following a smear test, they suspect increased erythrocyte breakdown (a test that involves spreading a sample of blood on a slide and examining it under a microscope). A blood test may also reveal an increase in the quantity of bilirubin, a chemical created by the destruction of red blood cells, as well as a reduction in the amount of haptoglobin, a protein that binds to haptoglobin Degraded red blood cells.

When blood tests reveal abnormal quantities of specific antibodies, either connected to erythrocytes (direct Coombs test) or in the liquid component of blood (indirect globulin antibody test) or the indirect Coombs test), autoimmune hemolytic anemia is identified as the cause of anemia. Other tests may be used to discover the source of the autoimmune reaction that caused the red blood cells to be damaged.

How is hemolytic anemia treated?

  • corticosteroids are a kind of corticosteroid that is (corticosteroids)
  • The spleen is sometimes removed.
  • Avoiding cold exposure is the best therapy for paroxysmal cryoglobinuria.
  •  Avoiding cold exposure is the best therapy for paroxysmal cryoglobinuria. Immunosuppressants are also beneficial.
  • High dosages are employed, followed by a progressive reduction in dose over several weeks or months.
  • When corticosteroids fail to work or create unpleasant side effects, splenectomy is a common second-line therapy. Immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporine, are used in the case of splenectomy or when surgery is not possible.
  • A blood transfusion may be required if the breakdown of red blood cells is severe, although this does not heal the anemia and only provides a temporary remedy.
  • If the damage is severe, a corticosteroid like prednisone is generally the first line of defense.

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

The destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of anti-RBC autoantibodies that respond best at 37°C is known as warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Pathogenesis of the illness includes splenic phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs and complement-mediated hemolysis. So far, treatment has centered on immunosuppression to reduce autoantibody production or reducing phagocytosis of injured cells in the spleen. In warm AIHA, complement inhibitors have not been investigated. This article will cover the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of warm AIHA, as well as the role of complement in disease pathology.

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